Methods of Locating

Flash Spottingobserving from several positions, enemy gun flashes and taking magnetic bearings of those flashes. By then plotting those bearings on a map it was possible to determine the enemy gun positions for counter battery fire.

Flash spotting on Western Front WW 1
LP 31A atop of Nui Dat hill
View east from 31A at Nui Dat

Sound Rangingmicrophones were placed in surveyed grid locations detecting the sound of gunfire. By using the time difference of that sound reaching each microphone, it was possible to  calculate the location from which the sound pulse originated.

Sound ranging microphone
Sound ranging equipment in command post
Sound ranging plotting board

Radar The radar transmits an electronic beam and when it hits an object, some of the beam is reflected back and this information can be  decoded by computer. If the target is as an aircraft it can be tracked or for projectiles the firing point determined.

3 Mark 7 radar
AN/KPQ- 1 radar at FSB "Coral: 1968
AN/TPQ 36 radar

Sensors – A variety of equipment such as Infra-Red Thermal Imagery, Acoustic and Seismic which were used together or separately to mount surveillance of tracks or paths used (or may be used ) by an enemy to give early warning of the stealthy approach of that enemy.

Survey – Early Locating units had their own surveying sections, providing Regimental or Divisional survey to Artillery units, thus allowing accurate gunfire, both in support of Infantry or for counter battery artillery fire. With the introduction of    satellite positioning systems, such as a GPS, modern survey equipment is now fully automated, replacing the need for surveyor

Surveyor in New Guinea WW 2
"Jessie" Owens [Wilde T2 theodolite] & Geoff Jebb [heliograph] - carrying survey from Nui Chau Chan [Hill 837] 32000mts to FSB Lion in Nov 1968
a. Dave Auld b. MRA 2 Tellurometer c. Beacon Banderol Set d. MRA 7 Tellurometer e. Red 2L Laser distance measuring machine f. GAK-2 gyroscopic orientor mounted on the Wild T2 theodolite g. Mo Marston h. Wild T2 theodolite

Meteorology – Weather information is important for planning military operations. By tracking and weather balloons carrying aloft target and sonde,  wind speed and direction and a temperature & humidity profile can be calculated. This information is essential for the accurate Artillery fire and aircraft operations.

Hydrogen bottles
Met troop wearing "flash protection"
[a] MW12 antennas - behind it is the Weather Measuring System (WMS) - wind speed, direction, and pressure [b] Balloon inflation launching device (BILD) or BED - old version [c] Pilot Balloon (PB) Theodolite - manual tracking of weather balloons [d] Balloon inflation launching device (BILD) - new version [e] 350 gm Met Balloon (under inflated) with radiosonde attached - Photo Dave Doyle

Global Positioning System (GPS) – Using GPS  much of today’s Artillery systems have very accurate location data, replacing the need for Artillery surveyors. Also hand held GPS units are available to the military.  GPS

Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) – UGS systems employ various sensor modalities including seismic, acoustic, magnetic, and pyro electric transducers, daylight imagers and passive infrared imagers. Able to automatically detect the presence of persons or vehicles, it will transmit activity reports or imagery via radio-frequency (RF) or satellite communications (SATCOM) to a remote Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination (PED) station. The systems are packaged for concealed emplacement in the field and for long-duration unattended operation.

TSS thermal camera, digital camera, video camera, ground surveillance radar & seismic sensors.
Regiment's equipment 2007

Gun Calibration Gun Calibration is concerned with the muzzle velocity (MV) of guns.  This information is essential for accurate predicted fire. Previously Locators used EVA to provide MV but modern Artillery systems have added that capability to the gun.

EVA with 105mm M2A2
Guns deployed after we're completed survey and now flying back to Nui Dat.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles {UAV} Unmanned Aerial Vehicles were originally introduced into the British Commonwealth armies to the Artillery as a means of accurately acquiring targets, thereby improving the effectiveness of the guns. These remotely operated aircraft can be equipped with a variety of sensors and payloads to gather information in the battlespace. Recent developments are UAV’s equipped with lasers, which illuminated targets to be then destroyed by laser guided munitions.

Scan Eagle
Shadow 200
Locating Surveillance and Target Acquisition Association